How do you calculate the efficiency of a solar panel?

Solar Panel data sheets show both cell efficiency and module efficiency. How do you calculate module efficiency?  Do you include the solar panel frame in the calculation? Below is a brief description of how to calculate the peak efficiency of a solar panel. Determine the surface area of the panel by multiplying the length by the width.  For example a SolarWorld 245W Mono panel is 1675 mm long by 1001 mm wide or 1,676.67 square meters.  The surface area is aperture area of the solar panel, therefore, this does include the frame. Pull the name plate rating of the panel from the datasheet.   For example if it is a 235 W panel, that is the name plate rating at STC (Standard Test Conditions) At STC the watts per meter squred (W/m²) is 1,000 W/m²   This is…
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How to apply Import Export Code (IEC)

What is Import Export Code (IEC) Import Export code more commonly known as IEC is a ten digit code number. It is given to an Importer or Exporter by Director General of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industries, Government of India. Any Entrepreneur who wishes to import something to India or export something from India requires an import export code. It has a permanent validity. There are certain benefits of this code. Though exporters need not necessarily apply for this code, however, they will miss out the otherwise provided benefits. Also, RBI is now making the mention of IE code mandatory in bank account.This code generally comes in play when you decide to expand your business globally. Code can be obtained on your name(in case of proprietorship) or on your company’s name. To register import export code a…
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Trademark Classes

Trademark An Application to register a Trade Mark must specify the goods and services on which the Mark is used or proposed to be used. All goods and services fall into 45 categories or classes. Trademark act, 1999, rule 2002. The fourth schedule classification of goods name of the classes (Parts of an article or apparatus are, in general, classified with the actual article or apparatus. except where such parts constitute articles included in other classes) Class - 1: Chemical product used in industry, Science, Photography, Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Manures (Natural and Artificial), fore extinguishing compositions, tampering substances and chemical preparations for soldering, chemical substances for preserving food stuffs, tanning substances adhesive substances used in industry. Class - 2: Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers, preservatives against rust and against deterioration of wood, colouring matters dyestuffs, mordants, resins, metals…
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List of English Stop Words

Stop Words are words which do not contain important significance to be used in Search Queries. Usually these words are filtered out from search queries because they return vast amount of unnecessary information. A better definition is provided below: “Words that do not appear in the index in a particular database because they are either insignificant (i.e., articles, prepositions) or so common that the results would be higher than the system can handle (as in the case of IUCAT where terms such as United States or Department are stop words in keyword searching.) Stop words vary from system to system. Also, some systems will merely ignore stop words where use of stop words in other systems will result in retrieving zero hits. ” http://www.iusb.edu/~libg/instruction/helpguide/handouts/2005Boolean.shtml Since I needed to use them in a project (Humboldt Diglital Library…
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