Imports and Export Procedure
How To Export
Golden Rule: In order to be successful in exporting one must fully research its markets. No one should ever try to tackle every market at once. Many enthusiastic persons bitten by the export bug, fail because they bite off more than they can chew. Overseas design and product requirements must be carefully considered,
Always sell as close to the market as possible. The fewer intermediaries one has the better, because every intermediary needs some percentage for his share in his business, which means less profit for the exporter and higher prices for the customer. All goods for export must be efficiently produced. They must be produced with due regard to the needs of export markets. It is no use trying to sell windows which open outwards in a country where, traditionally, windows open inwards.
Sell Experience: If a person cannot easily export his goods, may be he can sell his experience. Alternatively, he can concentrate on supplying goods and materials to exporters’ who already have established an export trade. He can concentrate on making what are termed ‘own brand’ products, much demanded by buyers in overseas markets which have the manufacturing know-how or facilities.
Selling in Export: In today’s competitive world, everyone has to be sold. The customer always has a choice of suppliers. Selling is an honorable profession, and you have to be an expert salesman.
On-Time Deliveries: Late deliveries are not always an exporters fault. Dock strikes, go-slows, etc. occur almost everywhere in the world. If one enters into export for the first time, he must ensure of fast and efficient delivery of the promised consignment.
Communication: Communication internal and external must be comprehensive and immediate. Good communication is vital in export. When you are in doubt, pick up the phone or email for immediate clarification.
Testing Product: The risk of failure in export markets can be minimized by intelligent use of research. Before committing to a large-scale operation overseas, try out on a small scale. Use the a sample test, and any mistakes can then be corrected without much harm having been done. While the test campaign may appear to cost more initially, remember that some of the cost will be repaid by sales, so that test marketing often turns out to be cheaper.
Preliminaries for Starting Export Business
Setting up an appropriate business organization
The first and the foremost question you as a prospective exporter has to decide is about the kind of business organisation needed for the purpose. You have to take a crucial decision as to whether a business will be run as a sole proprietary concern or a partnership firm or a company. The proper selection of organisation will depend upon
If the size of the business is small, it would be advantageous to form a sole proprietary business organisation. It can be set up easily without much expenses and legal formalities. It is subject to only a few governmental regulations. However, the biggest disadvantage of #138;sole proprietary business is limited liability to raise funds which restricts its growth. Besides, the owner has unlimited personal liability. In order to avoid this disadvantage, it is advisable to form a partnership firm. The partnership firm can also be set up with ease and economy. Business can take benefit of the varied experiences and expertise of the partners. The liability of the partner though joint and several, is practically distributed amongst the various partners, despite the fact that the personal liability of the partner is unlimited. The major disadvantage of partnership form of business organisation is that conflict amongst the partners is a potential threat to the business. It will not be out of place to mention here that partnership firms are governed by the Indian Partnership Act,1932 and, therefore they should be form within the parameters laid down by the Act.
Exporters Manual and Documentation
Company is another form of business organisation,which has the advantage of distinct legal identity and limited liability to the shareholders. It can be a private limited company or a public limited company. A private limited company can be formed by just two persons subscribing to its share capital. However, the number of its shareholders cannot exceed fifty, public cannot be invited to subscribe to its capital and the member’s right to transfer shares is restricted. On the other hand, a public limited company has a minimum of seven members. There is no limit to maximum number of its members. It can invite the public to subscribe to its capital and permit the transfer of shares. A public limited company offers enormous potential for growth because of access to substantial funds. The liquidity of investment is high because of easiness of transfer of shares. However, its formation can be recommended only when the size of the business is large. For small business, a sole proprietary concern or a partnership firm will be the most suitable form of business organisation.In case it is decided to incorporate a private limited company, the same is to be registered with the Registrar of Companies.
For details as to be procedures for registration with the registrar of Companies,
kindly refer to Nabhi’s FORMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF A PRIVATE COMPANY ALONG WITH PRACTICAL PROCEDURES.
Choosing appropriate mode of operation
You can chose any of the following modes of operations:
Merchant Exporter i.e. buying the goods from the market or from a manufacturer and then selling them to foreign buyers.
Manufacturer Exporter i.e. manufacturing the goods yourself for export Sales Agent/Commission Agent/Indenting Agent i.e. acting on behalf of the seller and charging commission Buying Agent i.e. acting on behalf of the buyer and charging commission
Naming the Business
Whatever form of business organisation has been finally decided, naming the business is an essential task for every exporter. The name and style should be attractive, short and meaningful. Simple and attractive name indicating the nature of business is ideal. The office should be located preferably in a commercial complex, in clean and workable surroundings. The letter head should be simple and superb providing information concerning H.O., branches, cable address, telephone number, fax number, banker’s name and address etc. Pick up a beautiful trade name and logo which reinforces your organisation’s name and image.
Open a current account in the name of the organisation in whose name you intend to export. It is advisable to open the account with a bank which is authorised to deal in Foreign Exchange.
Selecting the Company
Carefully select the product to be exported. For proper selection of product, study the trends of export of different items from India. The selected product must be in demand in the countries where it is to be exported. It should be possible to procure or manufacture the selected product at most economic cost so that it can be competitively priced. It should also be available in sufficient quantity and it should be possible to supply it repeatedly and regularly. Besides, while selecting the product, it has to be ensured that you are conversant with government policy and regulations in respect of product selected for export. You should also know import regulations in respect of such commodities by the importing countries. It would be preferable if you have previous knowledge and experience of commodities selected by you for export. A non-technical person should avoid in dealing in high tech products.
Making effective Business Correspondence
You should recognize the importance of business correspondence as it is an introduction with the buyer in proxy which may clinch his response according to the impression created by the correspondence. For creating a very favorable and excellent impression, you must use a beautiful letter head on airmail paper and a good envelope, nicely printed, giving fully particulars of your firm’s name, telephone, telex and fax number etc. Your language should be polite, soft, brief and to the point, giving a very clear picture of the subject to be put before the customer. Letters should be typed/ computer typed set, preferably in the language of the importing country. Also make sure that the full and correct address is written and the envelope is duly stamped. It should also be borne in mind that the aim of your business correspondence is not only to clinch the buyer’s order but also to obtain the information on the following:
The specifications of the products already in use in the importing country. Whether your product meets the above specifications. If not, Whether your specifications offer any distinct advantages in terms of prices, quality, after-sales service, etc. The import policy prevailing in the buyer’s country (e.g. whether there is any import licensing, any restrictions on remittances, any pre-qualification for product/supplier, etc.)
The trade practices in the buyers’ country with special reference to your product, information like whether importers import and distribute the product/high sea sales, whether agent is required to book orders from actual users etc. In case your item requires after sales service, the manner in which it can be offered. The prices at which your product sells in the retail/wholesale market, the duty structure and any other cost element to arrive at the landed cost. Information on the margins at which the product is sold. This information will help you in evolving a pricing strategy.
Study of various market segments viz. Importers, Supermarkets, Government Suppliers, Institutional Sales, Tenders, Suppliers, etc.
The various factors that rule the market viz. Quality, Price, Delivery, Brand Name, Credit Terms, etc. Role of advertising and publicity and reference to the product and the country.
A specimen export letter is given below :
Specimen of Introductory Letter to International Importers
Ref: TIL/NYK2001/ 14th Novl,2000
The Manager (Purchase)
M/s. TIL Ltd.
We are exporters of a wide variety of items including ………. for the last ten years. Our major buyers are ……… in ………. We are one of the registered export houses in India. We represent ………. the leading manufacturers of these items in India. These items are produced in collaboration with ………., the world famous company. We follow the ISI specifications. We believe that your company imports the items we export. We are enclosing herewith a copy of our brochure and price list for your perusal. We shall be glad to send you detailed literature/ samples of items that may be of interests to you.
For NYK Ltd.
Encl: As above.
The text can be suitably amended with reference to the manufacturing activity or/items dealt in by the exporter.
Where the manufacturing is not in collaboration with a foreign company, it need not be referred to.
Product literature (of the buyer’s interest) and price list should invariably be sent along with the letter.
The price list should categorically indicate whether the prices are f.o.b., & C&f or c.i.f. etc. However, discount need not be indicated in the price list.
The profile about your company should generally include the following matters:
Selecting the markets
Target markets should be selected after careful consideration of various factors like political embargo, scope of exporter’s selected product, demand stability, preferential treatment to products from developing countries, market penetration by competitive countries and products, distance of potential market, transport problems, language problems, tariff and non-tariff barriers, distribution infrastructure, size of demand in the market, expected life span of market and product requirements, sales and distribution channels. For this purpose you should collect adequate market information before selecting one or more target markets. The information can be collected from various sources like Export Promotion Council (EPCs)/Commodity Boards, Federation of Indian Export Organisation, (FIEO), Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), Indian Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO), Indian Embassies Abroad, Foreign Embassies in India, Import Promotion Institutions Abroad, Overseas Chambers of Commerce and Industries, Various Directories, Journals, Market Survey Reports.
Selecting prospective Buyers
You can collect addresses of the prospective buyers of the commodity from the following sources:
Enquiries from friends and relatives or other acquaintances residing in foreign countries.
Visiting/ participating in International Trade Fairs and Exhibitions in India and abroad. Contact with the Export Promotion Councils, Commodity Boards and other Government Agencies. List given in Appendix 4 of this book).
Consulting International Yellow Pages (A Publication from New York by Dun & Bradstreet, USA or other Yellow Pages of different countries like Japan,Dubai Etc.)
Collecting addresses from various Private Indian Publications Directories available on cost at Jain Book Agency,C-9, Connaught Place, New Delhi-1. (PH. 3355686, Fax.3731117).
Collecting information from International Trade Directories/ Journals/periodicals available in the libraries of Directorate General of Commercial Intelligenceand Statistics, IIFT, EPCs, ITPO etc. A list of selected trade directories published abroad is given in Appendix 5 of this book.
Making contacts with Trade Representatives of Overseas Govt. in India and Indian Trade and Other Representatives/ International Trade Development Authorities abroad. A list of international trade development authorities abroad like Foreign Chambers of Commerce etc. is given in Nabhi’s EXPORTERS MANUAL AND DOCUMENTATION.
Reading biweekly, fortnightly, monthly bulletins such as Indian Trade Journal, Export Service Bulletin, Bulletins and Magazines issued and published by Federation of Exporters’ Organisations, ITPO, EPCs, Commodity Boards and other allied agencies. A list of Indian Trade Periodicals containing names and addresses of importers is given in Appendix 6 of this book.
Visiting Embassies, Consulates etc. of other countries and taking note of addresses of importers for products proposed to be exported.
Advertising in newspapers having overseas editions and other foreign newspapers and magazines etc.
Contacting authorised dealers in foreign exchange with whom exporter is maintaining bank account.
Overseas importers can be contacted or informed about the products by the following methods:
By corresponding and sending brochures and product literature to prospective overseas buyers.
By undertaking trips to foreign markets and establishing personal rapport with overseas buyers. The number of trips will depend on your budget and resources. But it is essential forlong-term success in international marketing to establish personal rapport. Foreign trip will provide first-hand information regarding the market, overseas customers, their requirement, taste, preference and better out communication of the merits of exporters’ products.
Participation in buyer-seller meets and meeting the members of foreign delegation invited by Export Promotion Councils concerned.
Participation in international trade fairs, seminars.
Advertisement and publicity in overseas reputed newspapers and magazines. Facilities of free publicity can be availed from Import Development Centres.
Selecting channels of distribution
The following channels of distribution are generally utilised while exporting to overseas markets :
Whatever the channel of distribution for exporting to the overseas countries is proposed to be is utilized, it is essential that the exporters should possess the necessary skill for negotiating with the overseas channels of distribution. The ability to negatiate effectively is needed for discussion with importers or trade agents. While conducting business negotiations, the prospective exporter should avoid conflict, controversy and criticism vis-`-vis the other party. During conversation the attitude should be to communicate effectively. There should be coherence, creativity, compromise, concessions, commonality, consensus, commitment and compensation in business negotiations. The general problem you may face is about pricing. The buyer’s contention is that prices are too high. It should be noted that though the price is only one of the many issues that are discussed during business negotiations, it influences the entire negotiating process.
Since this is the most sensitive issue in business negotiations, it should be tactfully postponed until all the issues have been discussed and mutually agreed upon. As far as the price is concerned, you should try to determine the buyer’s real interest in the product from the outset, only then a suitable counter proposal should be presented. It should also be remembered that the buyer may request modifications in presentation of the product. You should show the willingness to meet such request, if possible, provided that it will result in profitable export business. Price being the most important sales tool, it has to be properly developed and presented.
Therefore, in order to create a favorable impression, minimize costly errors and generate repeated business. The following points should be kept in mind while preparing the price list:
Submit a typewritten list, printed on the regular bond paper and laid out simply and clearly (with at least an inch between columns and between groupings) Prominently indicate the name of your company, its full address, telephone and fax numbers, including the country and city codes. Fully describe the items being quoted. Group the items logically( i.e. all the fabrics together, all the made-up together etc.).
Specify whether shipped by sea or by air, f.o.b. or c.i.f. and to what port.
Quote exact amount and not rounded-off figures.
Mention the dates upto which the prices quoted will remain valid.
Where there is an internal reference number which must be quoted, to keep it short (the buyer has no interest in this detail and the more complex it is, the greater is the risk of error).
As regards the factors determining your price, please refer to ‘EXPORT PRICING AND COSTING’
One main point regarding export pricing is that while negotiating with overseas buyer, you may not remember the cost of a product. It may also be difficult for you to remember the profit margin built in various prices quoted by you. A clear jotting of this information is not free from the risk of being leaked out to the competitors or to the overseas buyers.
Some coding is, therefore, essential for the prices quoted by you so that at any stage/point of time, you can always utilise the information, enabling you to profitably negotiate with the overseas buyer. This can be done by assigning codes to the cost price.
For assigning codes to the cost price, you may select an English password consisting of 10 separate letters, each letter to represent a numerical figure. For example: ‘CRAZY MOUTH’ is the password selected by you, where C=1, R=2, A=3, Z=4, Y=5, M=6, O=7, U=8, T=9, H=0. This password can be successfully used for recognising various items of exports and their varieties.
Thus, a brass candle stand which is being quoted at Rs. 100(sale price) but whose cost price to you is Rs 25.50 will be coded as item number ‘RYYH’ and then assigned with a running serial number to make it more fascinating. You can decode the word ‘RYYH’ to write as Rs 25.50 so as to get an idea of difference between the Sale Price and the Cost Price, which will provide you the range within which you can negotiate with overseas buyers.
Processing an Export order
You should not be happy merely on receiving an export order. You should first acknowledge the export order, and then proceed to examine carefully in respect of items, specification, preshipment inspection, payment conditions, special packaging, labeling and marketing requirements, shipment and delivery date, marine insurance, documentation etc. if you are satisfied on these aspects, a formal confirmation should be sent to the buyer, otherwise clarification should be sought from the buyer before confirming the order. After confirmation of the export order immediate steps should be taken for procurement/manufacture of the export goods. In the meanwhile, you should proceed to enter into a formal export contract with the overseas buyer.
In order to avoid disputes, it is necessary to enter into an export contract with the overseas buyer. For this purpose, export contract should be carefully drafted incorporating comprehensive but in precise terms, all relevant and important conditions of the trade deal.
There should not be any ambiguity regarding the exact specifications of goods and terms of sale including export price, mode of payment, storage and distribution methods, type of packaging, port of shipment, delivery schedule etc. The different aspects of an export contract are enumerated as under :
Register With Export Promotion Council
In order to enable you to obtain benefits/concession under the export-import policy, you are required to register yourself with an appropriate export promotion agency by obtaining registration-cum- membership certificate.
For this purpose you should apply in the prescribed form, given at Appendix 3 of this Book to the Export Promotion Council relating to your main line of business.
For list of Registering Agencies, please refer to Appendix 4 of this Book. However, if the export is such that it is not covered by any EPC, RCMC in respect thereof may be obtained from the Regional Licensing Authority concerned.
An application for registration should be accompanied by a self certified copy of the Importer-Exporter code number issued by the Regional Licensing Authority concerned and bank certificate in support of the applicant’s financial soundness. In case an exporter desires to get registration as a manufacturer exporter, he should furnish evidence to that effect. In the case of a manufacturer exporter the licensing authority may seek copy of registration with SSI/any other sponsoring authority in addition to the application in the prescribed form for the Import Export Code Number.
If the application for registration is granted, the EPC or FIEO shall issue the RCMC indicating the status of the applicant as merchant exporter or manufacturer exporter. The RCMC shall be valid for five years ending 31st March of the licensing year. The certificate shall be deemed to be valid from 1st April of the licensing year in which it was issued.
Registration With Sales Tax Authorities: Goods which are to be shipped out of the country for export are eligible for exemption from both Sales Tax and Central Sales Tax. For this purpose, you should get yourself registered with the Sales Tax Authority of your state after following the procedure prescribed under the Sales Tax Act applicable to your State.
As the overseas buyers generally insist for the samples before placing confirmed orders, it is essential that the samples are attractive, informative and have retention and reminder value. Besides, the exporter should know the Government policy and procedures for export of samples from India. He should also be aware about the cheapest modes of sending samples.
In this connection, it is advised that the postal channel is comparatively cheaper than sending samples by air. While sending samples through postal channel due regard should be given to weight and dimension of the post parcels as postal authorities have prescribed maximum weight and dimension for the post parcels handled by them. Where it is not possible to send the samples by post parcels, the same may be sent by air. So far as the Government policy regarding export of samples is concerned, distinction has been made between export of commercial samples and gift parcels. In terms of Para 11.4 of the Import Export Policy as modified upto 31.3.1999, goods including edible items of value not exceeding Rs.1,00,000 in a licensing year may be exported as a gift. Items mentioned as restricted for exports in the ITC (HS) Classifications of Export & Import Items shall not be exported as a gift without a license except in the case of edible items. Export of bonafide trade and technical samples having indelible marking as “sample not for sale” is allowed freely without any limit. However, in such cases where indelible marking is not available, the samples may be allowed for a value not exceeding US $ 10,000, per consignment. In addition the exporter has the option to avail the facility of free samples upto US $ 5,000 or 1% of the preceding year’s exports, whichever is higher. An application for export of gifts/samples in excess of the limits specified above may be made to the DGFT.
Special provisions have been made for export of garment samples. Garment samples are allowed to be exported only by exporters who are registered with the Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) or the Wool and Woolen Export Promotion Council for woolen Knitwears. Export of samples to be sent by post parcel or air freight are further divided into 3 categories, namely : 1.Samples of value upto Rs.10,000, 2.Samples of value less than Rs. 25,000, 3.Samples of value more than Rs. 25,000.Where the value of the articles is less than Rs. 10,000, the exporter should file a simple declaration that the sample does not involve foreign exchange and its value is less than Rs. 10,000.Where the value of samples is more than Rs. 10,000 but less than Rs. 25,000 you should obtain a value certificate from the authorised dealer in foreign exchange (i.e. your bank). For this purpose, you should submit a commercial invoice certifying thereon that the parcel does not involve foreign exchange and the aggregate value of the samples exported by you does not exceed Rs. 25,000 in the current calendar year.If the value of samples exceeds Rs. 25,000 you should obtain Gr/PP waiver from the Reserve Bank of India.
Export of trade samples is allowed by sea/air (as distinguished from sea/airmail) without any value restriction, provided the customs authorities are satisfied about the bona fide of the goods that they do not fall in the export control restrictions. However, customs authorities may ask for suitable documentary evidence in this regard viz. correspondence etc. with the overseas buyer. Trade samples against which the foreign buyer agrees to make payment can be exported in the same manner in which normal exports are effected. Samples can also be carried personally by you while traveling abroad provided these are otherwise permissible or cleared for export as explained earlier.
However, in case of precious jewelry/stone items, you should declare the same to the customs authorities while leaving the country and obtain necessary endorsement on export certificate issued by the Jewelry Appraiser of the Customs.
Selling through an overseas agent is an effective strategy. These agents serve as a source of market intelligence. Regularly sending the latest trends on the current fashion, taste and price in the market. Being a man on the spot, the agent is in a position to render his advice to exporter or new methods and strategy for pushing up sales of your products. He also provides you support in the matter of transportation, reservation of accommodation, appointment with the government as and when required by you. In some countries it is compulsory under their law to sell through local agents only. It is, therefore, essential that you should carefully select your overseas agent.
Consider the points listed below when appointing an Agent :
Some source of information on agents are:
Specimen Copy of Agreement
An agreement made this the ……. day ……. of between …….(name and address) hereinafter called the exporters of the first part and …….. (name and address) hereinafter called the importers of the second part, wherein the exporters grant to the importers the importation and selling right in the territory of ……….(fill name of country) for ………(names and brief description of product) subject to the terms and conditions given below :
Acquire Export License
Exports free unless regulated: The current Export Licensing Policy of the Government of India is contained in the new Import Export Policy and Procedures, 1997-2002 as amended upto 31.3.1999. The Policy and Procedures are amended from time to time and for latest position kindly refer to. However, for the sake of information of the prospective exporters, it may be stated that all goods may be exported without any restriction except to the extent such exports are regulated by the ITC (HS) Classifications of Export and Import items or any other provisions of this policy or any other law for the time being in force. The Director General of Foreign Trade may, however, specify through a Public Notice such terms and conditions according to which any goods, not included in the ITC (HS) Classifications of Export and Import items may be exported without a license. Such terms and conditions may include Minimum Export Price (MEP), registration with specified authorities, quantitative ceilings and compliance with other laws, rules, regulations.
Application for an Export License: An application for grant of export license in respect of items mentioned in Schedule 2 of ITC (HS) Classifications of Export and Import items may be made in the form given in Appendix-18A or 18B or 18C, as the case may be, to the Director General of Foreign Trade and shall be accompanied by the documents prescribed therein. The Export Licensing Committee under the Chairmanship of Export Commissioner shall consider such applications on merits for issue of export licenses special High Powered Licensing Committee under the Chairmanship of Director General of Foreign Trade shall consider applications for export of dual purpose chemicals and for special materials, equipment and technologies, as specified in Schedule 2 Appendix 5 and Schedule 2 Appendix 6 respectively of the book p 7 3 titled ITC(HS) Classifications of Export and Import items on the basis of guidelines issued in this regard from time to time.
Export of Canalised Items: An application for export of canalised items mentioned in ITC (HS) Classifications of Export and Import items may be made to the Director General of Foreign Trade.
Trade Fairs/Exhibitions: Any Indian wishing to organise any Trade Fair/Exhibition in India or abroad, would be required to obtain a certificate from an officer of the rank not below that of an Under Secretary to the Government of India, in the Ministry of Commerce, or an Officer of India Trade Promotion Organisation, duly authorised by its chairman in this behalf, to the effect that such exhibition, fair or as the case may be, similar show or display, has been approved or sponsored by the Government of India in the Ministry of Commerce or the India Trade Promotion Organisation and the same is being held in public interest.
Gifts/Spares/Replacement Goods: For export of gifts, indigenous/imported spares and replacement goods in excess of the prescribed ceiling/period, an application may be made to the Director General of Foreign Trade.
Export through Courier Service: Import/Exports through a registered courier service is permitted as per the Notification issued by the Department of Revenue. However, importability/exportability of such items shall be regulated in accordance with the policy.
Acquire Export Credit Insurance
Export credit insurance protects you from the consequences of the payment risks, both political and commercial. It enables you to expand your overseas business without fear of loss. Further, it creates a favorable climate for you under which you can hope to get timely and liberal credit facilities from the banks at home.
You can obtain Export Credit Insurance from the Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation of India Limited. In order to provide you Export Credit Insurance, the following covers are issued by the ECGC :
Standard policies to protect you against the risk of not p 7 3 receiving payment while trading with overseas buyers on short-term credit.
Specific policies designed to protect you against the risk of not receiving payment in respect of:
The policies are either:
Whole Turnover Policies in the form of ‘Open Cover’ in respect of shipments made during 24 months period. You have to obtain credit limit on each one of your buyers to enable ECGC to approve a limit on the basis of credit worthiness of the buyer. These policies are basically similar to whole turnover policies but only apply to specific contracts.
Specific Policies for exports of capital goods on medium or long-term credit, turnkey projects, civil construction works and technical services.These policies are basically similar to whole turnover policies but only apply to specific contracts.
Financial guarantees issued to banks against risk involved in providing credit or guarantee facilities to you, and
Special schemes viz. transfer guarantee issued to protect banks which add confirmation to letters of credit, Insurance cover for Buyers’ Credit, Lines of Credit, Joint Ventures and Overseas Investment Insurance, and Exchange Fluctuation Risk Insurance. The other guarantees which banks can offer to youthrough ECGC schemes are :— Bid Bonds,— Advance Payments Guarantee,— Bank guarantee for due performance of the contract by the exporter,—Bank guarantee for payment of retention money,— Bank guarantee for loans in foreign currencies. Details of these schemes can be obtained from your own banker or local office of the Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd.
The Shipments (Comprehensive Risks) Policy is the one ideally suited to cover risks in respect of goods exported on short-term credit. Shipments to associates or to agents and those against letter of credit can be covered for only political risks by suitable endorsements to the shipments (comprehensive risks) Policy. Premium is charged on such shipments at lower rates.
For obtaining a policy you should apply to the nearest office of the ECGC in the prescribed Form no.121 (obtainable from ECGC) along with the following documents :
After examining the proposal, ECGC would send the exporter an offer letter stating the terms of its cover and premium rates. The policy will be issued after the exporter conveys his consent to the premium rate and pays a non-refundable policy fee of Rs. 100 for policies with maximum liability limit p 7 3 upto Rs. 5 lakhs; Rs. 200 between Rs. 5 lakhs and Rs. 20 lakhs and Rs. 100 for each additional Rs. 10 lakhs or part thereof subject to a ceiling of Rs. 2500.As commercial risks are not covered in the absence of a credit limit, you are advised to apply to ECGC for approval of credit limit on buyer in the prescribed Form No:144 (obtainable from ECGC) before making shipment. Credit limit is the limit upto which claim can be paid under the policy for losses on account of commercial risks. If no application for credit limit on a buyer has been made, ECGC accepts liability for commercial risks upto a maximum of Rs. 5,00,000 for D.P./C.A.D. transactions and Rs. 2,00,000 for D.A. transactions provided that at least three shipments have been effected to the buyer during the preceding two years on similar terms, at least one of them was not less than the discretionary limit availed of by the exporter and the buyer had made payment on the due dates.
Financial assistance to the exporters are generally provided by Commercial Banks, before shipment as well as after shipment of the said goods. The assistance provided before shipment of goods is known as per-shipment finance and that provided after the shipment of goods is known as post-shipment finance.Pre-shipment finance is given for working capital for purchase of raw-material, processing, packing, transportation, ware-housing etc. of the goods meant for export. Post-shipment finance is provided for bridging the gap between the shipment of goods and realization of export proceeds. The later is done by the Banks by purchasing or negotiating the export documents or by extending advance against export bills accepted on collection basis. While doing so, the Banks adjust the pre-shipment advance, if any, already granted to the exporter.
An application for pre-shipment advance should be made by you to your banker along with the following documents:
Confirmed export order/contract or L/C etc. in original. Where it is not available, an undertaking to the effect that the same will be produced to the bank within a reasonable time for verification and endorsement should be given. An undertaking that the advance will be utilised for the specific purpose of procuring/manufacturing/shipping etc., of the goods meant for export only, as stated in the relative confirmed export order or the L/C. If you are a sub-supplier and want to supply the goods to the Export/Trading/Star Trading House or Merchant Exporter, an undertaking from the Merchant
Exporter or Export/Trading/Star Trading House stating that they have not/will p 7 3 not avail themselves of packing credit facility against the same transaction for the same purpose till the original packing credit is liquidated. Copies of Income Tax/Wealth Tax assessment Order for the last 2-3 years in the case of sole proprietary and partnership firm. Copy of Exporter’s Code Number (CNX). Copy of a valid RCMC (Registration-cum-Membership Certificate) held by you and/or the Export/Trading/StarTrading House Certificate. Appropriate policy/guarantee of the ECGC.
Any other document required by the Bank. For encouraging exports, R.B.I. has instructed the banks to grant preshipment advance at a concessional rate of interest. The present rate of interest is 10% p.a. for preshipment advance upto an initial period of 180 days. Preshipment advance for a further period of 90 days is given at the concessional rate of 13% p.a. Banks are free to determine the interest rate for advances beyond 270 days and upto 360 days.
Following special schemes are also available in respect of pre-shipment finance:
Exim Bank’s scheme for grant of foreign currency pre-shipment credit to exporters for financing cost of imported inputs for manufacture of export products.
Scheme of export packing credit to sub-suppliers from export order.
Packing credit for deemed exports.
Pre-shipment Credit in Foreign Currency (PCFC). For further details refer to Nabhi’s “How to Borrow from Financial and Banking Institutions”.
Post Shipment Finance
Post-shipment finance is the finance provided against shipping documents. It is also provided against duty drawback claims. It is provided in the following forms:
Purchase of Export Documents drawn under Export Order: Purchase or discount facilities in respect of export bills drawn under confirmed export order are generally granted to the customers who are enjoying Bill Purchase/Discounting limits from the Bank. As in case of purchase or discounting of export documents drawn under export order, the security offered under L/C by way of substitution of credit-worthiness of the buyer by the issuing bank is not available, the bank financing is totally dependent upon the credit worthiness of the buyer, i.e. the importer, as well as that of the exporter or the beneficiary. The documents dawn on DP basis are parted with through foreign correspondent only when payment is received while in case of DA bills documents (including that of title to the goods) are passed on to the overseas importer against the acceptance of the draft to make payment on maturity. DA bills are thus unsecured. The bank financing against export bills is open to the risk of non-payment. Banks, in order to enhance security, generally opt for ECGC policies and guarantees which are issued in favor of the exporter/banks to protect their interest on percentage basis in case of non-payment or delayed payment which is not on account of mischief, mistake or negligence on the part of exporter. Within the total limit of policy issued to the customer, drawee-wise limits are generally fixed for individual customers. At the time of purchasing the bill bank has to ascertain that this drawee limit is not exceeded so as to make the bank ineligible for claim in case of non-payment.
Advances against Export Bills Sent on Collection: It may sometimes be possible to avail advance against export bills sent on collection. In such cases the export bills are sent by the bank on collection basis as against their purchase/discounting by the bank. Advance against such bills is granted by way of a ‘separate loan’ usually termed as ‘post-shipment loan’. This facility is, in fact, another form of post- shipment advance and is sanctioned by the bank on the same terms and conditions as applicable to the facility of Negotiation/Purchase/Discount of export bills. A margin of 10 to 25% is, however, stipulated in such cases. The rates of interest etc., chargeable on this facility are also governed by the same rules. This type of facility is, however, not very popular and most of the advances against export bills are made by the bank by way of negotiation/purchase/discount.
Advance against Goods Sent on Consignment Basis: When the goods are exported on consignment basis at the risk of the exporter for sale and eventual remittance of sale proceeds to him by the agent/consignee, bank may finance against such transaction subject to the customer enjoying specific limit to that effect. However, the bank should ensure while forwarding shipping documents to its overseas branch/correspondent to instruct the latter to deliver the document only against Trust Receipt/Undertaking to deliver the sale proceeds by specified date, which should be within the prescribed date even if according to the practice in certain trades a bill for part of the estimated value is drawn in advance against the exports.
Advance against Undrawn Balance: In certain lines of export it is the trade practice that bills are not to be drawn for the full invoice value of the goods but to leave small part undrawn for payment after adjustment due to difference in rates, weight, quality etc. to be ascertained after approval and inspection of the goods. Banks do finance against the undrawn balance if undrawn balance is in conformity with the normal level of balance left undrawn in the particular line of export subject to a maximum of 10% of the value of export and an undertaking is obtained from the exporter that he will, within 6 months from due date of payment or the date of shipment of the goods, whichever is earlier surrender balance proceeds of the shipment. Against the specific prior approval from Reserve Bank of India the percentage of undrawn balance can be enhanced by the exporter and the finance can be made available accordingly at higher rate. Since the actual amount to be realised out of the undrawn balance, may be less than the undrawn balance, it is necessary to keep a margin on such advance.
Advance against Retention Money: Banks also grant advances against retention money, which is payable within one year from the date of shipment, at a concessional rate of interest up to 90 days. If such advances extend beyond one year, they are treated as deferred payment advances which are also eligible for concessional rate of interest.
Advances against Claims of Duty Drawback: Duty Drawback is permitted against exports of different categories of goods under the ‘Customs and Central Excise Duty Drawback Rules, 1995’. Drawback in relation to goods manufactured in India and exported means a rebate of duties chargeable on any imported materials or excisable materials used in manufacture of such goods in India or rebate on excise duty chargeable under Central Excises Act, 1944 on certain specified goods. The Duty Drawback Scheme is administered by Directorate of Duty Drawback in the Ministry of Finance. The claims of duty drawback are settled by Custom House at the rates determined and notified by the Directorate. As per the present procedure, no separate claim of duty drawback is to be filed by the exporter. A copy of the shipping bill presented by the exporter at the time of making shipment of goods serves the purpose of claim of duty drawback as well. This claim is provisionally accepted by the customs at the time of shipment and the shipping bill is duly verified. The claim is settled by customs office later. As a further incentive to exporters, Customs Houses at Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Chandigarh, Hyderabad have evolved a simplified procedure under which claims of duty drawback are settled immediately after shipment and no funds of exporter are blocked.
However, where settlement is not possible under the simplified procedure exporters may obtain advances against claims of duty drawback as provisionally certified by customs.
Negotiation of Export documents Drawn under L/C: This aspect has been discussed in the chapter on Special Care for negotiation of Export Documents under Letter of Credit.
Rates of Interest
The rate of interest depends on the nature of the Bills, i.e., whether it is a demand bill or usance bill. Like pre-shipment, post-shipment finance is also available at concessional rate of interest. Present Rates of interest are as under:
Demand Bills for transit period Not exceeding ( as specified by FEDAI) 10% p.a.
Usance Bills (for total period comprising usance period of ex-port bills, transit period as specified by FEDAI and grace period, wherever applicable:
Against duty drawback etc., receive- Not exce-vable from Government covered by adding 10%ECGC guarantees (upto 90 days) p.a. 4. Against undrawn balance (upto 90 days) — do — 5.Against retention money (for suppl- — do — ies portion only) payable within one year from the date of shipment (upto90 days)
Normal Transit Period: Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India (FEDAI) has fixed transit period for export bills drawn on different countries in the world. The concept of this transit period is that an export bill should normally be realised within that period. The transit period so fixed by FEDAI is known as ‘Normal Transit Period’ and mainly depends on geographical location of a particular country.
Direct and Indirect Bill: If the currency of the bill is the same as the currency of the country on which it is drawn, it is termed as direct bill, e.g. an export bill in US $ drawn on a place in U.S.A. However, if the currency of the bill in which it is drawn is different than the currency of the country on which it is drawn, it is termed as indirect bill, e.g. an export bill in US $ drawn on a place in Japan. The normal transit period fixed for indirect bill is on higher side as compared to transit period fixed for direct bills.
Notional Due Date: To determine the due date of an export bill we have to consider the following 3 components: (1) Normal transit period as fixed by FEDAI (2) Usance period of the bill (3) Grace period if applicable in the country on which the bill is drawn. Grace period is applicable only in the case of usance bills. The notional due date of an export bill may thus be calculated after adding all the above 3 components The concessional rate of interest is chargeable upto the notional due date subject to a maximum of 90 days.
FORFAITING FINANCE BY AUTHORISED DEALERS: Reserve Bank has now permitted the authorised dealers (Banks) to arrange forfeiting of medium term export receivables p 7 3 on the same lines as per the scheme of EXIM Bank and many International forfeiting agencies have now become active in Indian market. Forfeiting may be usefully employed as an additional window of export finance particularly for exports to those countries for which normal exports credit is not intended by the commercial banks.It must be noted that charges of forfaiting are eventually to be passed on to the ultimate buyer and should, therefore, be so declared on relative export declaration forms.
EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL BORROWINGS: Proposals for raising foreign currency loans/credits viz., Buyer’s Credits, Supplier’s Credits or Lines of Credits by firms/companies/lending institutions, banks, etc. for financing cost of import of goods, technology or for any other purposes, other than short-term loans/credits maturing within one year should first be submitted to government of India, Ministry of Finance (Department Economic Affairs), ECB Division, New Delhi for necessary clearance. The proposals are considered by the government on merits of each case and in the light of prevailing Government policy. For details refer to (1) NABHI’S FOREIGN EXCHANGE MANUAL & (2) NABHI’S MANUAL OF SEBI GUIDELINES ON CAPITAL ISSUES, EURO ISSUES, MERCHANT BANKNG & MUTUAL FUNDS
EXIM BANK FINANCE: Besides commercial banks,export finance is also made available by the EXIM bank. The EXIM bank provides financial assistance to promote Indian exports through direct financial assistance , overseas investment finance, term finance for export production and export development, pre-shipment credit, lines of credit, re-lending facility, export bills re-discounting, refinance to commercial banks, finance for computer software exports, finance for export marketing and bulk import finance to commercial banks. The EXIM Bank also extends non-funded facility to Indian exports in the form of guarantees. The diversified lending programme of the EXIM Bank now covers various stages of exports, i.e. from the development export markets to expansion of production capacity for exports, production for export and post shipment financing. The EXIM Bank’s focus is on export of manufactured goods, project exports, exports of technology, services and export of computer software.
Forfaiting Finance from EXIM Bank: A new financing option for the Indian exporters is available under the forfaiting finance Scheme recently introduced by the EXIM Bank. Forfaiting is a form of trade finance involving discounting of medium-term export receivables with or without recourse to the exporter. The arrangement envisages discounting by Indian exporters of bill of exchange/promissory notes relating to export transactions which are “avalised” or guaranteed by the buyer’s bankers with overseas forfaiting agencies on “without recourse” basis.Briefly, the procedure involved in the scheme of for p 7 3 faiting finance by the Exim Bank is as follows:
Exporter initiates negotiations with the prospective overseas buyer with regard to the basic contract price, period of credit, rate of interest, etc., After successful negotiations, he furnishes the relevant particulars such as name and country of overseas buyer, contract value, nature of goods, tenure of credit, name and country of guaranteeing bankers to the Exim Bank and requests for an indicative discounting quote. Exim Bank obtains the indicative quote of forfaiting discount together with commitment fee and other charges, if any, to be paid by the exporter, from an overseas forfaiting agency.
On receipt of the indicative quote from the Exim Bank, the exporter finalises the terms of the contract, loading the discount and other charges in the value and approaches Exim Bank for obtaining a firm quote. Exim Bank arranges to get the same from an appropriate overseas forfaiting agency and furnishes the same to the exporter. At this stage, exporter would be required to confirm acceptance of the arrangement to Exim Bank within a specific period as stipulated by that Bank.
The export contract clearly indicates that the overseas buyer shall prepare a series of avalised Promissory Notes in favour of the exporter and hand them over against the shipping documents to his banker. The Prommissory Notes will be endorsed with the words without recourse by the exporter and handed over to his banker in India for onward transmission to the Exim Bank.
Alternatively, the export contract may provide for exporter to draw a series of Bills of exchange on the overseas buyer which will be sent with the shipping documents through latter’s banker for acceptance by the overseas buyer. Overseas buyer’s banker will handover the documents against acceptance of Bills of Exchange by the buyer and signature of ‘aval’ or the guaranteeing bank. Avalised and accepted bills of exchange will be returned to the exporter through his banker. Exporter will endorse avalised Bills of Exchange with the words ‘without recourse’ and return them to his banker for onward transmission to the Exim Bank.
Exim Bank will forward the Bills of Exchange/Promissory Notes after verification to the forfaiting agency for discounting by the latter.
Exim Bank will arrange to collect the discounted proceeds of Promissory Notes/Bills of Exchange from the overseas forfaiting agency and effect payment to the nostro account of the exporter’s bank as per the latter’s instruction.
Understand Foreign Exchange Rates & Protect Against their Adverse Movement
Elimination of exchange risk due to movement in the exchange rat can be avoided by the following options:
First alternative is possible only when the buyer agrees to it. He may have his own reasons for not agreeing to invoice in Indian rupees. The second alternative is commonly resorted to. This alternative involves booking of forward exchange contract with your bank.
This means that pending submission of documents to the bank for purchase/negotiation, you have made firm commitment with the bank under which you agree to sell to the bank foreign exchange at a future date/period and the bank agrees to purchase at the firm rate the foreign exchange to be tendered by you on that date / during the agreed period.
Thus you are in a position to know in advance the exchange rate you are going to get on submission of your export documents. Thus, though you have to pay some charge for booking a forward contract, you are certain about the rupee amount of the bill on conversion of foreign currency at a future date. For booking a forward contract, you should approach your bank with whom you are enjoying a credit limit.
The bank will book a forward contract only against a firm export order showing description and quantity of the goods to be supplied, aggregate price and approximate date of shipment. The bank can accept telex, cable order/fax in this regard, provided you give an undertaking to produce the original one. Where shipment has already been completed, forward contract will be booked on the basis of export bill tendered by you. It can also be booked against an irrevocable Letter of Credit provided L/C is complete in all respects and you give a declaration to the bank that you have not booked any forward contract against the underlying sale contract covering shipments under the L/C.You must ensure delivery of the related documents within the agreed period of the contract. In case you fail to deliver the documents within the specified period, the forward contract needs to be cancelled and fresh contract booked for which your bank will levy cancellation charges as per the FEDAI Rules.
In case the documents are delivered before the stipulated period, it will involve early delivery and bank will levy charges for the early delivery, as per FEDAI Rules. Where the documents are not delivered at all, contract has to be cancelled either at your request or by the bank itself under certain circumstances, and this will entail cancellation charges as per the FEDAI Rules.
It, therefore becomes extremely important that the period of delivery of the export documents is carefully chosen and strictly adhered to, so as to avoid unnecessary charges on account of early delivery or cancellation of forward contracts. However, facility for substitution of export order is permitted by RBI on specific request if the unfulfilled export order and the substituted order is for the same commodity.
Procuring/Manufacturing Goods for Export & their Inspection by Government Authorities
Labeling, Packaging, Packing and Marking Goods
An important stage after manufacturing of goods or their procurement is their preparation for shipment. This involves labeling, packaging, packing and marking of export consignments. Labeling requirements differ from country to country and the same should be ascertained well in advance from the buyer. The label should indicate quality, quantity, method of use etc. Special international care labels have been specified for the textile items by GINITEX, and the same should be scrupulously adhered to. Packaging fulfills a vital role in helping to get your export products to the market in top condition, as well as in presenting your goods to the overseas buyer in an attractive way. While packaging, quality should not be compromised merely to cut down costs, packaging should also be in conformity with the instructions issued by the importer. Packing refers to the external containers used for transportation . The shape of packing cases play a very important role in packing the cargo, and the nature of packing material to be used will depend upon the items exported As regard specification for the size, weight and strength care must be taken to ensure that the weight of standard case does not exceed 50 Kg. for easy handling of the cargo. Before packing and sealing the goods, it should be ensured that all the contents are properly placed in the case and the list of contents of packing notes should be prepared so that the buyer, the Customs authorities and the Insurance authorities can easily check the contents of each and every case.
The consolidated statement of contents for a number of case is called the Packing List, which should be prepared in the prescribed standardised format.
Marking means to mark the address, number of packages etc. on the packets. It is essential for identification purpose and should provide information on exporters’ mark, port of destination, place of destination, order number and date, gross, net and tare weight and handling instructions. It should also be ensured that while putting marks, the law of buyer’s country is duly compiled with.
All shipping cases should be marked a number with special symbols selected by the exporters or the importers, so that the competitors cannot find out the details of the customers and the country of destination or supplier’s country of despatch. Care should also be taken to ensure that the marking conforms to those written in the invoice, insurance certificate, bill of lading and other documents. The International Cargo Handling Co-ordination, Association has set out for the use of exporters a number of recommendations for the marking of goods carried by ocean-going vessels. They are equally useful for sending goods by other modes of transportation.
The marks should appear in certain order. Essential data should be placed in oblong frames with lines 1.5 centimeters thick, and subsidiary information should be placed in another type of frame.
Declaration on large packages should be placed on two continuous sides, and for consignments bound together on a pallet, also on the top.
Handling instructions should be placed on all four sides. Similar packages, such as goods in sacks, should be marked on two opposite sides.
Lettering should be at least 7.5 centimeters high for essential data, and at least 3.5 centimeters for subsidiary data. If the package is too small for such letter, other sizes may be used, but in the same ratio. The sizes of the symbols should also be in proportion to the size of the package and of the other markings.
Only fast dyes should be used for lettering. Essential data should be in black and subsidiary data in a less conspicuous colour; red and orange lettering should be reversed for dangerous goods only. For food packed in sacks, only harmless dyes should be employed, and the dye should not come through the packing in such a way as to affect the goods.
Stick-on labels should only be used on individual package or parcel and all old labels should be removed. Marking should be made by stencil or by branding or by pencil or brush without a stencil. If stencils are used, care should be taken that the letters and figures are perfectly legible to prevent confusion. This is especially true of the letters and figures — B.R.P, O, G-G-D-C, H.N; 3-8 : 6-9 and 1-7.
The surface to be marked should be smooth and clean. If packages are to be bonded, they can be marked before this is done; the hoops should not however, cover the markings.
The figure should indicate the total number of packages making up the consignment and the consecutive number of the individual package. For example :1520/15/1 identifies the first package of a total number of 15 packets and 1520/15/15 the last one.
The name of the ship and the bill of lading number should be shown when this is possible. Handling instructions must appear in the language of the exporter and importer, and also, if possible, in the language of the countries where goods are to be handled en route or trans shipped.
New Excise Procedure
All excisable goods exported out of India are exempt from payment of Central Excise Duties, for which two different procedures have been approved
Rebate of Duty on Goods Export Procedure
Under the first procedure, known as ‘Rebate of duty on Goods Export. The manufacturer has first to pay the excise duty on goods meant for export and then claim refund of the same after exportation of such goods to countries except Nepal and Bhutan. This is done under Rule 12 of Central Excise Rules. Under this rule, rebate of duty is granted for the finished stage as well as input stage. Rebate of duty in respect of the excisable materials used in the manufacture of the exported goods shall not be allowed if the exporter avails of the drawback allowed under the Customs and Central Excise Duties Drawback Rules, 1995 or Modvat. The following procedure should be followed while exporting under the rebate of duty. Removal of goods under claim of rebate from a factory or warehouse without examination by the Central Excise Officers. The exporters are allowed to remove the goods for export on their own without getting the goods examined by the Central Excise Officers. Form AR4 in such cases should be prepared in sixtuplicate, giving all particulars and declarations. The exporter shall deliver triplicate, and quadruplicate, quintuplicateand sixtuplicate copies of AR4 to the Superintendent of Central Excise having jurisdiction over the factory or the warehouse, within 24 hours of the removal of the consignment and would retain the original and duplicate copies for presenting along with the consignment to the Customs Officer at the point of export. The jurisdictional superintendent of Central Excise examines the information contained in AR4 and verifies the facts of payment of duty and other certificates/declarations made by the exporter. After he is satisfied that the information contained in the AR4 is true, he signs at appropriate places in the four copies of AR4 submitted to him and plus his stamp with his name and designation below his signature. He would then dispose of the triplicate, quadruplicate, quintuplicate and sixtuplicate copies of AR4 as under:-
Procedure for exports under Central Excise Seal Where the exporter desires the sealing of the goods by the Central Excise Officers so that the export goods may not be examined by the Customs Officers at the Port/Airport of shipment, he should present an AR4 application in sixtuplicate to the Superintendent of Central Excise having jurisdiction over the factory/warehouse at least 24 hours before the intended removal of the export goods from the factory/warehouse. The Superintendent of Central Excise may depute an Inspector of Central Excise or may himself go for sealing and examination of the export consignment. Where the AR4 indicates that the export is in discharge of an export obligation under a Quantity-based advance License or a Value-based Advance License issued under the Duty Exemption Scheme, in such cases the consignment is invariably examined and sealed by the Superintendent of Central Excise himself. The Central Excise Officer examining the consignment would draw samples wherever necessary in triplicate. He would hand over two sets of samples, duly sealed, to the exporter or his authorized agent, for delivering to the Customs Officers at the point of export. He would retain the third set for his records. The export consignment is carefully examined vis-`-vis the description of goods, their value and other particulars/declarations on the AR4. The Central Excise Officer verifies the facts of payment of duty and other certificates/declarations made by the exporter. After he is satisfied that the information contained in the AR4 is true he would allow the clearances and also sign all the six copies of the AR4 at appropriate places and put his stamp with his name and designation below his signature. The copies of AR4 are disposed of as under:
Original and Duplicate: To the exporter for presenting to Customs Officer at the point of export along with the export consignment.
Triplicate: To the rebate sanctioning authority i.e. Maritime Commissioner of Central Excise or the jurisdictional Assistant Commissioner of Central Excise, as declared by the exporter on the AR4. The Central Excise officer may handover this copy under the sealed cover on exporter’s request.
Quadruplicate: To the Chief Accounts Officer at his Commissionerate Headquarters.
Quintuplicate: To be retained for records.
Export under Bond Procedure
Under the second procedure known as “Exports Under Bond” goods can be exported out of India except to Nepal or Bhutan without prior payment of duty subject to the execution of the Bond with security / security for a sum equivalent to the duty chargeable on the goods to be exported. This is done under Rule 13 of Central Excise Rules which deals with export of goods in Bond as well as utilisation of raw materials etc. without payment of duty for manufacture and export of excisable goods. The following procedure has been prescribed in this regard.