Biography Of E.V.Ramaswamy National Father of Tamilnadu
பெரியார் ஈ .வேங்கட . ராமசாமி. (TAMIL)
It’s n’t a story or a Biography, The History of Tamilnadu. The Follow every human in his/her Life, Don’t avoid to follow, Because (EVR) our national father his a soul of every human.
1885 [Age – 06]He was sent to a small primary school normally run at a House – pial in those days.
1895 [Age – 16]
1898 [Age – 19]
1900 [Age – 21]
1904 [Age – 25]
INSULT AT KAASI ENLIGHTENS HIS RATIONALISM
He reached Kaasi (Varanasi), a noted sacred town of Hindu pilgrimage on the bank of the River Ganges. There he could not get free meals easily at choultries which exclusively fed Brahmins forbidding other Hindu castes.Having starved severely for some days, this handsome young man Ramasamy found no other better way than to enter a choultry with the appearance of a Brahmin wearing a thread on his bare chest. But his moustache betrayed him. So the gate-keeper not only prevented his entry but also pushed him rudely to the street.At that moment, as the feast was over inside the choultry, the leaves with food left over were thrown at the street.The unbearable burning hunger for the past few days forced Ramasamy to compete with the street – dogs in eating the remnants of food in the leaves.While eating that food, the eyes of Ramasamy looked at the letters carved on the front wall of the building. They revealed the truth that the choultry exclusively occupied by the highest caste viz., Brahmins, had been built only by a wealthy merchant of Dravidian Race from Tamil Nadu.
Suddenly, in the mind of this young man, some questions could have sparked such as:”Why and how the Brahmins can obstruct the Dravidians from taking meals in the choultry although the choultry was built with the money of a Dravidian Philanthropist? Why the Brahmins behaved so mercilessly and fanatically as to push the communities of the Dravidian race even to starvation – death by adamantly enforcing their evil casteism?”No justifiable answers came to convince the judicious thinking of Periyar on the above questions.The disgrace inflicted by the Brahmins at KAASI upon him without the least mercy, made a deep wound in the heart of Periyar and it inflamed intense hatred towards that Aryan race and their creation of innumerable Gods.Though Kasi (Varanasi) has been acclaimed as the most “sacred town” by the Brahmins, the worst ugly scenes of immoral activities, prostitution, cheating, looting, begging crowds for alms, floating dead bodies on the River Ganges turned Periyar to abhor that so-called holy-town. Consequently, a re-thinking on his renunciation led him to return to his family life.On returning to Erode – his father delegated all his trade rights to this second son and renamed his major commercial concern under the title: “E.V. Ramasamy Naicker Mandi”
1905 [Age – 26]
onwards : SELFLESS SOCIAL SERVICES [Age – 26]
Despite is intense hatred towards the Hindu religion and its caste – system – particularly the cruel ‘Untouchability’ imposed by the Brahmins to supress the Dravidian race – the executive efficiency and the unshakable honesty of E.V.R. fetched the awards of many posts in various public institutions.Periyar was made Honorary Magistrate by the British Government.He held many honorary positions like the President, the Secretary, Vice-President etc., in various public institutions numbering 29 such as – District Board, Taluk Board, Urban Bank, Davasthanam (Religious Trust), Public Library, War Recruitment Committee, Association of Agriculturists, Association of Merchants, Mahajana School Committee… etc.,
1909 [Age – 30]
1931 [Age – 52]
The third provincial self-respect conference was held at viruthunagar.R.K. Shanmugam fresided over it.
1931 Dec 13 : Periyar started his Journey to Europe from Chennai harbour by ship. Mr. S. Ramanathan and Mr. Ramu of Erode accompanied him. (Via Sri Lanka)
1932 [Age – 53]
He visited many European Countries like Egypt, Greek, Turkey, Soviet Russia, Germany, England (Britain), Italy, Spain, France, Portugal etc.,
In Russia (formerly Soviet Union) his stay was extended for a lengthy period of three months because he was invited to address many workers’ meetings. Being the First Nation of Karl Marx’s Communism, established by the great leader Mr. Lenin, the former Soviet Union (Russia) captivated very much the heart of Periyar.
At Berlin, capital of Germany, Periyar visited several Socialist Associations and offices of Socialist magazines.
1932 June 20 : In England (Britain) Periyar addressed a huge labourers’ public meeting with more than 50,000 people. He explained his principles on Rationalism as well as Socialism.
1932 Nov 11 : Returned to Erode after completing the European journey via Colombo, Capital of Ceylon (Srilanka).
1932 Dec 28-29 : In Erode at the residence of Periyar, a plan of Socialist Programme drafted by the great thinker Comrade M. SINGARAVELU was discussed by the followers of Self-Respect Movement.
Periyar addressed many meetings throughout Tamil Nadu, propagating the ‘Erode Plan of Socialism’..
1933 May 11 [Age – 54]
Mrs. E.V.R. Nagammal, the beloved wife of Periyar passed away and the burial took place the very next day..
On 12-5-1933, he immediately left for Tiruchirappalli where he conducted an Inter-religious (Christian) Self-Respect Marriage defying the section 144 promulgated in this connection and got arrested.
1933 Nov. 26
Periyar convened the conference of Self-Respect and Socialism at Erode.
1933 [Age – 55]
Because of the repression by the British Rule, ‘Kudi Arasu’ – Tamil Weekly was banned. Another magazine ‘Puratchi’ (Revolution) was published by Periyar.
1933 Dec – 30
Periyar and his sister Kannammal were arrested and awarded imprisonment for an editorial in ‘Kudi Arasu’ weekly.
1934 [Age – 56]
The reputed Socialist leader later known as ‘Lok Nayak’ JAYA PRAKASH NARAYAN met Periyar at his residence and requested him to join the Socialist Party (Founded by Jaya Prakash).
He brought out the Tamil weekly ‘Pagutharivu’ (Rationalism) on 12-1-1934.
1935 [Age – 57]
Periyar began to extend his support to the Justice Party. It started the Tamil weekly paper “Viduthalai” on 1-6-1935. Then it was entrusted to Periyar who published ‘Viduthalai’ as Tamil Daily Newspaper from 1-1-1937.
From 13-1-1935 Periyar’s script reform in Tamil language was adopted in all the papers and books published by him.
1936 [Age – 58]
In the conference held at Kanchipuram he arranged a resolution to be passed to oppose Hindi imposition.
1937 [Age – 59] Having become the Prime Minister of the former composite Madras Province, Mr. C. Rajagopala Achariyar announced that Hindi would be made a compulsory subject in school curriculum.
1937 Dec. 26
At Truchirappalli, ‘Tamils Conferance’ was convened. There Periyar declared that to defeat the dominance of Hindi over Tamil and Dravidian race, the only solution would be ‘A separate Souvereign State’ ie., ‘Tamil Nadu for Tamils’.
1938 [Age – 60]
In his book entitled as “The world to come” Periyar visuvalised many scientific inventions including the possibility of the “Test Tube Baby” which is now a reality!
Periyar opposed the introduction of compulsory Hindi in schools by Mr. C. Rajagopala Achariyar (Rajaji) as Prime Minister of Madras Presidency who had earlier announced its introduction on 25-2-1938 but he actually introduced it on 23-4-1938. Periyar began to picket in front of the Hindu Theological School, Chennai from 4-6-1938 where Hindi was introduced. He courted arrest and was sentenced on 6-12-1938 to undergo imprisonment for 2 years.He was lodged in the Govt. Central prison at Madras and then he was transferred to the Bellary Jail (Andhra).
Mr. C.N. ANNADURAI (Latter he became the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu 1967-69) participated the picketing against Hindi and went to jail.On 29-12-1938 he was elected President of the Justice Party even when he was in Bellary Jail (Andhra).
1940[Age – 62]
The title “Periyar” was conferred on him by Tamil Nadu Women Conference held in Madras on 13-11-1938 under the presidentship of NEELAMBIGAI AMMAIYAAR daughter of MARAIMALAI ADIGAL, a veteran Tamil Scholar.
He met Dr. B.R. AMBEDKAR and MOHAMMED ALI JINNAH in Bombay. Mr. C.N. ANNADURAI (affectionately called as ‘Anna’), accompanied him.
When the Ministry of Mr. C. Rajagopala Achariar resigned Periyar was invited to form alternative Ministry since he was elected the leader of the Justice Party.
He put forward the demand for a separate Dravida Nadu to save Dravidian race and Tamil language from the dominance of Hindi and North Indian Hindu Capitalists at Thiruvarur Conference
1944 [Age – 66]
On 27-8-1944 the name of the Justice Party was changed as ‘Dravidar Kazhagam’ to signify purely as a social revolutionary movement for the emancipation of Dravidian race oppressed by Brahmins at the provincial (special) Justice Party conference held at Salem and also not to contest elections and accept the titles given by British Govt.
1946 [Age – 68]
On 11-5-1946, the famous “Blackshirts Conference” was held on the sands of the River Vaigai in Madurai when the conference pandal was set fire to, by Brahmin – instigated hooligans. Periyar and his followers were stranded for the whole day.
1947 Aug- 15 – [Age – 69]
When the whole of India and the world were jubilant on the attainment of Indian “Independence” on 15-8-1947, Periyar boldly called it a ‘mourning’ day for Tamils with a foresight. He called Independence of India was nothing but a ‘made over’ to Brahmins and Baniyas from British.
1947 [Age – 69]
On 14-9-1947, the Dravida Nadu separation conference was held at a moffusil town, Cuddalore.
1948 [Age – 70]
The blackshirts volunteer corps was banned. The 18th Dravidar Kazhagam’s State Conference was held at Tuticorn on 8-5-1948 and 9-5-1948 under the presidentship of Periyar when thousands of Periyar’s followers assembled, irrespective of Caste and Religion.
Periyar and Mr. C.N. Annadurai (‘Anna’) participated in the Anti-Hindi Volunteers Conference held under the leadership of Maraimalai Adigalar (the Champion for purity of Tamil) in Chennai.
On 30-1-1948 Mahathma Gandhi fell a victim to the bullets of assassin Mr. Godse, a Marathi Brahmin in New Delhi at his prayer meeting. Periyar condemned the assasination at all meetings held thereafter in Tamil Nadu. He suggested that India be named as “Gandhi Nation (Nadu)”, a new religion may be created as “Gandhi Religion” to mark his martyrdom.
1948 Aug – 10 [Age – 70]
The second Anti-Hindi Agitation started at Kumbakonam on 10-8-1948 on the directive of Periyar.
1948 Aug – 22 [Age – 70]
It was decided to show Black Flags to Mr.C.Rajagopalachariar when he visited Madras on 23-8-1948 as Governor General of India. Periyar organised a Black flag demonstration and his followers were arrested and kept in the central jail at Madras from22-8-1948 to 27-8-1948 and were released on27-8-1948.
1949 [Age – 71]
Periyar’s marriage with Mani Ammai was held just to guard his health as well as Movement’s properties so that the Reformation movement would go on in future without stagnation.
1950 [Age – 72]
He declared the Republic Day, 26-1-1950, as a Mourning Day for Tamils.
On 22-01-1950 Periyar was sentenced to undergo imprisonment for the publicationofhis book ‘Ponmozhigal’ (Golden sayings).
1950 [Age – 73]
Sensing the formidable opposition engineered by Periyar, Constitution of India was amended for the first time by the Nehru Govt. at the centre. This was the first Amendment to the Indian Constitution. Ultimately sub clause (4) was added to the section 15 to admit of the provision of Communal G.O. to preserve the rights and equal opportunities of backward classes of India.
1952 [Age – 75]
Periyar opposed the scheme of New Elementary education on the basis of the parents hereditary occupation, introduced by the then Chief-Minister Mr. C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji).
Periyar and his followers erased with tar the Hindi-name-Boards in all Railway stations all over Tamil Nadu.
1953 [Age – 78]
In order to condemn idolatary worship and to show to the world that there was no divine power in idols, he organised a campaign. His followers and himself broke the idol of PILLAIYAR (Vinayaga) at public places.
The intensity of Periyar’s opposition against the educational reform-programme of Rajaji according to which all students should learn in schools their parents’ profession was so formidable that Mr. C. Rajagopala Achari (Rajaji) had to quit the post of Chief-Minister. Consequently MR. K. KAMARAJ came to power as Chief-Minister of Tamil Nadu and he dropped the much opposed educational reform.
1954 [Age – 79]
Periyar convened the Conference on Buddhism at Erode.
Periyar along with his wife and some friends visited Myanmar (Burma) and Malaysia. At Mandalay (Myanmar) he attended the World Buddhist Conference where he met Mr. Mallala Sekara, a Buddhist Scholar and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. He conversed with the latter for a long time and the subject of conversion to Buddhism came up for the discussion. He strongly advised Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to get coverted to Buddhism with a very lage mumber of people, and not to go alone.
1954 Dec [Age – 80]
Periyar undertook his second tour to Malaysia and propagated his rationalistic principles in many places.
1955 [Age – 80]
Periyar announced and fixed a date to set fire to the Indian National Flag in protest against the compulsory scheme of imposition of Hindi in Tamil Nadu, much against the wishes of the people.
Periyar was arrested for his public agitation of burning the pictures of Rama at all public places, as a symbolic protest against the Aryan domination and degradation of the Dravidian leaders according to the Ramayana epic.
The Trichi District Collector Mr. R.S. Malayappan a sympathizer of the Untouchables was given wantonly strictures in a judgement of the Madras High Court by two Brahmin Judges. Periyar exposed this judgement since R.S. Malayappan was an Offficer from a Backward community. Periyar criticised the High Court judges for their hatred towards the depressed class officers in a public meeting held at Trichi Town Hall Square.
1957 Jan – 18 [Age – 82]
The meeting between PERIYAR and VINOBA BHAVE, the Founder-leader of ‘Land Donation Movement’ took place at Tiruchirappalli.
1957 April – 23
For criticising the judgement of Madras High Court delivered by two Brahmin Judges in the case of Trichi District Collector Mr. R.S. Malayappan, Periyar was charged with contempt of court and when the final hearing was heard (Before the judges Justice P.V. Rajamannar and Justice A.S. Panchapakesa Iyer) he made a statement in the High Court, explaining how Brahmins conducted themselves with racial motive in several cases and opined that it was their inborn natural ‘Dharma’ to annihilate uprising Shudras and Panchamas.
1957 [Age – 82]
On 3-11-1957 at Thanjavur a big conference was held to weigh Periyar against silver coins to commemorate his birthday.
On the same day a resolution was passed calling upon the people of Tamil Nadu to come forward to burn the excerpts of Articles in the Constitution of India on 26-11-1957 as a protest against the inclusion of Articles supporting caste. Some 10,000 people burnt the excerpts of the Constitution of India. Only about 3000 of them were arrested and sentenced to undergo from 6 months to 3 years Rigorous Imprisonment. This agitation rocked the whole of Tamil Nadu and that was the first time that such a big agitation against casteism was started. Some 15 to 18 persons died in and out of jail due to incarceration (A special act was passed to funish them).
1958 [Age – 83]
Against the caste system, another big agitation was started by Periyar. Brahmins used to inscribe the name in their Hotel-Name-Boards as ‘Brahmin Hotel’ to spread the impression that Brahmins were superior caste. Periyar requested all his followers to erase the name ‘Brahmin’ in the Hotel Name Boards. Accordingly a compaign was started to erase the word Brahmin in all Brahmin Hotels in Tamil Nadu. As a result of this agitation, the name ‘Brahmin’ in the hotel-name-boards disappeared.
Periyar was arrested as a case was foisted on him by the Govt. of Tamil Nadu that he exhorted his followers to attack the Brahmins in his speeches delivered at Pasupathipalayam (Karur), Kulitalai and Tiruchirapalli and was sentenced to undergo imprisonment for 6 months by the District Sessions Court at Tiruchirapalli.
Periyar and Ram Manohar Lohia, the Socialist leader of North India, met at Chennai and discussed their social and political service to the people.
1959 [Age – 84]
He undertook a tour of North India addressing meetings at Kanpur, Lucknow, New Delhi and other places.
1960 [Age – 85]
He burnt the map of India excluding Tamil Nadu, explaining that the Central Government Raj is a Brahmin Raj.
A protest day was observed by Periyar all over Tamil Nadu against the Supreme Court judgement which had crippled the operation of the Tamil Nadu Land Ceiling Act which was ratified by an Amendment to the Constitution.
1967 [Age – 92]
Periyar decided to extend his support to the D.M.K. Ministry. Mr. C.N. Annadurai declared in the State Assembly that he dedicated his ‘Ministry’ to Periyar. He also enacted the Self-Respect Marriage Act legalising all the marriages so far conducted on Self-Respect Marriage System devoid of rituals.
Mr. C.N. Annadurai, a lieutenant of Periyar, brought a legislation renaming Madras State as Tamil Nadu State and also introducing the two language formula (Tamil and English) for Tamil Nadu, instead of the 3 language formula prescribed by the Central Govt. then. These three achievements are the mile stones of his ministry.1968
As a true rationalist disciple of Periyar the Chief Minister ANNA directed to remove the pictures of all Hindu deities from the Govt. offices through a circular, as a secular measure.
Periyar observed a day for “Condemnation of the exploitation of North Indian Business Magnates”.
He was invited to address Minorities Conference at Lucknow (U.P. Capital).
The Ramayana, Epic of Aryans, was burnt all over Tamil Nadu as a mark of distrust of the Aryans and trotest against the treatment of Dravidians in the Ramayana.
Chief Minister ANNA expired. Periyar plunged into profound grief and expressed that the future of entire Tamil Nadu had become darkened due to the demise of ANNA.1969
Periyar announced a Programme of agitation to get the right people of all castes to enter into the Sanctum Sanctorum of temples to eradicate the caste discrimination practised, according to which Brahmins alone could become Archakas and perform poojas in Sanskrit only instead of Tamil.1970 [Age – 95]
The Tamil Bi-monthly, the “Unmai” (Truth) was first started at Tiruchirapalli by Periyar. First issue was released by Dr. K. Veeramani, General Secretary (Now President) of Dravidar Kazhagam.
The UNESCO, an international organisation of the United Nations, conferred on Periyar a glorious title the citation of which reads as “Priyar the prophet of New Age, Socrates of South East Asia, Father of the social Reform Movement, and Arch enemy of ignorance, superstitions, meaningless customs and base manners” – UNESCO 27-6-1970. The award was presented by the Union Education Minister of Education, Dr. TRIGUNA SEN under the presidentship of Chief Minister KALAINGAR M. KARUNANIDHI.
Periyar inagurated a new forum, called the Rationalist Forum, a non-political social organisation, enlisting the Government and private Employees and also others who subscrible to the views of “Rationalism”.
A legislation was passed in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly, enabling persons belonging to all castes to become Archakas (Triests) in Temples. Periyar demanded such a legislation, to abolish castes and to establish equality of persons irrespective of caste at all places.
Periyar inaugurated the English monthly, the “Modern Rationalist”, the need for which was keenly felt by English knowing Rationalists.1970 Nov-1 Mumbai (formerly Bombay) Dravidar Kazhagam arranged Birth-Day Celebrations of Periyar (September 17) and Anna (Sep. 15) Accompanied by EVR Mani Ammai and General Secretary of Dravidar Kazhagam Mr. K. Veeramani, Thanthai Periyar travelled in his van from Chennai and attended the above two functions besides some more meetings in Mumbai for three days from First November, 1970.1971 Mar-3
After the 1971 Assembly election to Tamil Nadu, the new D.M.K. Ministry was sworn in under the Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi. Periyar attended the function.1971 Sep- 17.
At Cuddalore, the statue of Periyar was unveiled by the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Hon. M. Karunanidhi. The Chairman of the Legislative Council Mr. C.P. Chitrarasu presided over the function.1973 Sep-16,17 [Age – 95]Periyar happily participated in his 95th Birth-Day Celebrations. The A.D.M.K. General Secretary M.G. RAMACHANDRAN offered laurels and a purse to Periyar.1973 Sep-30 [Age – 95]
A huge ‘Conference of Blackshirts’ was conducted at Madurai City. The statue of Thanthai Periyar was unveiled by Tamil Nadu Minister Dr. V.R. NEDUNCHEZHIAN under the Chairmanship of Minister PANRUTI S. RAMACHANDRAN.1973 Dec. 8 [Age – 95]
Periyar convened a social conference to eradicate social degradation and caste system imposed by Brahmins. This conference was held on 8-12-1973 and 9-12-1973 at the Periyar Thidal, Vepery, Madras and a large gathering attended the session on both days. Periyar made an eloquent speech exhorting all Dravidians to come forward and work for the eradication of caste and their social degradation. Many historic resolutions were then passed.1973 Dec. 19 [Age – 95]
At Thiyagaraya Nagar, Chennai – Periyar delivered his last speech (the Swansong) like an ever memorable dying declaration.1973 Dec- 20 [Age – 95]
Due to unbearable acute pain of Hernia disease – Periyar was admitted in the Government General Hospital in Chennai.1973 Dec- 21
On his wish Periyar was taken to the C.M.C. Hospital at Vellore.1973 Dec- 24
The Greatest Original Thinker and the Resolute Rationalist of the World, Periyar, breathed his last, putting billions of rationalists, Tamilians of Dravidian race and admirers all over the globe into unbearable agony.
An official State mourning was announced by the Chief-Minister Kalaingar M. Karunanidhi and Gazette extraordinary was issued by the Govt. of Tamil Nadu.1973 Dec- 25 A state funeral with police honours was arranged in Madras. His body was kept in the Rajaji Hall for the public to pay their respects when dignitaries, his followers, friends, and a host of others assembled in millions. The funeral procession started in the evening and reached the Periyar Thidal at Vepery, Chennai – 600 007 where his body was laid to rest. Leaders like former Chief Minister Mr. K. Kamaraj and Kalainagnar Karunanidhi came in the procession A Govt. holiday was declared on 24-12-1973 by the State Govt of Tamil Nadu.1974 Jan- 6
After Periyar’s death Mrs. E.V.R. Maniammai headed this Social Revolutionary Movement (Dravidar Kazhagam) and lived upto 1978.1978 March- 16
Mrs. EVR Maniammal passed away.
1978 March- 17
Then Mr. K. Veeramani, who was nominated as General Secretary by Periyar in 1960, continued as the Secretary General of the movement and still he carries the torch. Now he is the President of Dravidar kahagam.
He has established numerous institutions as permanent Memorials to the Greatest Universal Rationalist Thinker
-பெரியார் ஈ .வேங்கட . ராமசாமி
Dated 27-6-1970 : - Periyar the Prophet of the new Age The Socrates of South East Asia, Father of the social reform movement and arch enemy of ignorance; Superstitons; meaningless customs and base manners